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Thread: Spaceflight disrupts mitochondrial function

  1. #1
    Join Date
    Sep 2003
    The beautiful north coast (Ohio)

    Spaceflight disrupts mitochondrial function

    Chemical & Engineering News

    Spaceflight is no picnic for the body. Muscles atrophy, bones thin, arteries stiffen, inflammation spikes, vision deteriorates—and that’s just for starters. But a new study shows that these disparate effects might have a common cause: out-of-whack activity in mitochondria, the energy-producing compartments in living cells (Cell 2020, DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2020.11.002). The study is one of a collection of papers on the biological effects of spaceflight published last week in Cell.
    Maybe the most interesting part is this:
    An obvious next step, Beheshti says, is to study whether pharmaceutical therapies that are already approved to treat mitochondrial diseases or known nutritional interventions that support these organelles’ function might alleviate some of the negative effects of space radiation and antigravity.
    Link to journal paper

    Spaceflight is known to impose changes on human physiology with unknown molecular etiologies. To reveal these causes, we used a multi-omics, systems biology analytical approach using biomedical profiles from fifty-nine astronauts and data from NASA’s GeneLab derived from hundreds of samples flown in space to determine transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolomic, and epigenetic responses to spaceflight. Overall pathway analyses on the multi-omics datasets showed significant enrichment for mitochondrial processes, as well as innate immunity, chronic inflammation, cell cycle, circadian rhythm, and olfactory functions. Importantly, NASA’s Twin Study provided a platform to confirm several of our principal findings. Evidence of altered mitochondrial function and DNA damage was also found in the urine and blood metabolic data compiled from the astronaut cohort and NASA Twin Study data, indicating mitochondrial stress as a consistent phenotype of spaceflight.
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  2. #2
    Join Date
    Jun 2005
    I think it's sort of expected. Mitochondria also have DNA, and since radiation in space damages nuclear DNA, it will also damage mitochondrial DNA and lead to disruption. I think it used to be believed the mitochondria lacked DNA repair mechanisms that would make the situation worse, but I think now it's become clear that they are also able to repair DNA.
    As above, so below

  3. #3
    Join Date
    Apr 2011
    Norfolk UK and some of me is in Northern France
    So it is you mother’s fault after all
    sicut vis videre esto
    When we realize that patterns don't exist in the universe, they are a template that we hold to the universe to make sense of it, it all makes a lot more sense.
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  4. #4
    Join Date
    Feb 2011
    Quote Originally Posted by Swift View Post
    Chemical & Engineering News

    Maybe the most interesting part is this:

    Link to journal paper

    There's some hope antagomirs (synthetic RNA, similar to the mRNA CoVid vaccines) could be used to mitigate these effects by silencing certain miRNA locations.

    Source: Cell Reports; December 8, 2020

    Circulating miRNA Spaceflight Signature Reveals Targets for Countermeasure Development

    • Spaceflight miRNA signature validated in multiple organism models

    • Components of miRNA signature related to space radiation and microgravity

    • Downstream targets and circulating dependence of miRNAs in NASA Twins Study

    • Inhibition of key microvasculature miRNAs mitigates space radiation impact

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